"Olive Tree Theology", (which is what I believe and it is scriptural and meat/line up line and precept upon precept we grow in our understanding) is that Gentiles are "grafted in" to the promises made to the Israelites, which is derived from Romans 11:17-21, and thus there is no real "replacement" happening. Gentiles (those not Jews, ie. House of Israel and/or other nations/peoples) and those of Jews, ie House of Judah, are grafted into the covenants made to Israel (which was given to all 12 tribes/nations) and together they are now treated as "one people of God."
The New Testament is not a “New” Covenant exactly (more a "renewed covenant", although it being ‘better” than the “Old” Covenant, because they had gone astray and did evil in the sight of the Lord, and failed to keep His Laws and Statues – Torah (instructions).
Because the Lord gave the Israelites the blessings and the curses to keeping His commandments, sabbaths/convocations and Feasts (which included the old system of sacrificial animal killings and that was done away with when the Temple was destroyed in 70 AD for the Jews, because the House of Israel had already been scattered by the time of Y'shua/Jesus) and they (the ten lost tribes of Israel) failed miserably, God DIVORCED His people and also when Y'shua/Jesus came, He called those Jewish Pharisees hypocrites because they knew the letter of the law but not the spirit of the law. When God came in the flesh, as Y’shua (which means Yah’s salvation), Y’shua Messiah/Jesus Christ had to die for the sins of all people. (He came to bring back the spirit of the law in addition to the letter of the law.) When He died, this released the wife to remarry. When Y’shua resurrected, alive and immortal, He now can claim ALL PEOPLE who make themselves ready for the wedding to be His bride. There is no exclusion of any people.
So the “church” of the New Testament did not replace Israel (See Romans 11:17-21), but became included in the better covenant, which also includes the commandments being kept in the ark of the heart. The ark of the heart is the place now where God’s commandments are kept. No person has the excuse of not keeping His Commandments.
Jer 3:15-23 And I will give you pastors according to mine heart, which shall feed you with knowledge and understanding. And it shall come to pass, when ye be multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith the LORD, they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the LORD: neither shall it come to mind: neither shall they remember it; neither shall they visit it; neither shall that be done any more. At that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the LORD; and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the LORD, to Jerusalem: neither shall they walk any more after the imagination of their evil heart. In those days the house of Judah shall walk with the house of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to the land that I have given for an inheritance unto your fathers. But I said, How shall I put thee among the children, and give thee a pleasant land, a goodly heritage of the hosts of nations? and I said, Thou shalt call me, My father; and shalt not turn away from me. Surely as a wife treacherously departeth from her husband, so have ye dealt treacherously with me, O house of Israel, saith the LORD. A voice was heard upon the high places, weeping and supplications of the children of Israel: for they have perverted their way, and they have forgotten the LORD their God. Return, ye backsliding children, and I will heal your backslidings. Behold, we come unto thee; for thou art the LORD our God. Truly in vain is salvation hoped for from the hills, and from the multitude of mountains: truly in the LORD our God is the salvation of Israel.
The New Testament KJV uses the words “the church” 70 times. Is is no wonder that New Testament only and/or mostly believe in Replacement Theology?
The truth is in the translation. Let’s take a look at the Greek word translated to “church”.
From a compound of G1537 and a derivative of G2564; a calling out, that is, (concretely) a popular meeting, especially a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Christian community of members on earth or saints in heaven or both): - assembly, church.
As you can see the “Ekkclsia” is NOT just “THE NEW TESTAMENT CHURCH BELIEVERS, making just a new assembly”, but includes even the Jewish synagogue.
The new believers were going to the synagogues on the Sabbath and hearing the Torah Holy Scriptures. When the Torah was opened, it was only read exactly word for word as has been for many thousands of years, since it was given. (When given is a big topic…it includes all the way back to Adam and what God orally spoke/commanded. Even Noah knew what clean and unclean animals where and there was no written Torah.)
Jas 1:22 But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves.
Yes, the new believers where going to the synagogues on the Sabbath and “Hearing the Word/Holy Scriptures/Toarh (instructions).
When the apostles and Paul were writing and teaching to the new converts to accepting Yah’s salvation (Y’shua) they were all Jewish. Paul, especially was more learned than them all, as He was a rabbi of the Pharisees. He memorized all of the Torah and Paul quoted from it often, as did all the other Disciples and Teachers, since there was no New Testament to quote from as they taught the new believers and need of being fed milk.
1Co 3:1 -2 And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ. I have fed you with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able.
Because the new converts were unfamiliar with the Old Testament, Paul’s teachings are often hard for us to understand in this modern English speaking time. Much, I believe, is from the teachings of “the church”, thousands of different Christian denominations, each taking a slightly different view of the meanings in the New Testament.
Will discuss what the New Testament writings had to say about keeping the commandments.