Walking With Christ

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Jas 3:13-18 . .Who among you is wise and understanding? Let him show by his good behavior his deeds in the gentleness of wisdom. But if you have bitter rivalry and selfish ambition in your heart, do not be arrogant and so lie against the truth. This wisdom is not that which comes down from above, but is earthly, natural, demonic.

. . . For where rivalry and selfish ambition exist, there is disorder and every evil thing. But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, reasonable, full of compassion and good fruits, unwavering, without hypocrisy. And the seed whose fruit is righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace.

The "seed whose fruit is righteousness" is oftentimes not sown in peace on internet forums; nor is it sown on internet forums by people who make peace. It's sown by flaming, competitive, assertive, confrontational people— toxic, impulsive, mean-spirited personalities given to rejoinders, demeaning comments, recriminations and fault finding. And if there's a problem, it's never them; no, you are the problem, and as for them; turning the other cheek is no longer in vogue.

Those kinds of people do not like to be wrong, nor can they even think of themselves as wrong, nor are they likely to admit when they're wrong because they're really not all that interested in the truth; but only in defending their version of the truth; viz: their truth is far more important to them than even the God's truth; and should you not accept their truth, then it's because you have no understanding and need to come to your senses. These people are neither wise nor gentle. They'll ride rough-shod over your feelings like a skate-boarder barreling through Autumn leaves on the sidewalk. It's just awful how little they care for the injuries their attitude and their choice of words cause others.

People who take it upon themselves to teach, preach, and/or discuss the Bible ought to be sensible, and they ought to exemplify the Gospel. They can't be doing it for the prestige, showing off, impressing their friends, and/or competing with a rival. They have to be honest and forthright. They have to have a heart, they have to be dedicated and reliable: they cannot be vacillating, they have to practice what they preach, and they cannot be sarcastic, obtuse, difficult, contrary, quarrelsome, snobby, pretentious, demeaning, domineering, despotic, assertive, confrontational, stubborn, militant, pernicious, or pugnacious.

Christians that teach and/or discuss the Bible with others really ought to be someone they can trust, and someone with whom they may speak their minds without fear of reprisals instead of someone in whose presence everybody has to walk on egg shells all the time.
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Jas 4:7 . . So humble yourselves before God. Resist the Devil, and he will
shun you.

The Devil has the tactical advantage of being completely invisible, and no
more solid than the vacuum of space. So the human eye not only can't see
the Devil, but human touch can't feel him either. The Devil can't be bumped
into, he gives off no odor; he makes no sound, he takes up no space.

The Devil rules in the world of men primarily by punching human nature's
buttons. There's your first clue in how to resist the Devil.

"So I say, live by the Spirit, and you will not gratify the inclinations of the
flesh." (Gal 5:16-17)

Living by the Spirit isn't mysterious. All it really means is doing as God
expects rather than permitting one's self to be manipulated by the impulses,
proclivities, predilections, and propensities of human nature. We can't stop
those forces of human nature from doing their thing any more than we can
stop our lungs from demanding we take breaths. But they can be suppressed
if one puts their mind to it.

"Take a firm stand against him, and be strong in your faith." (1Pet 5:9)

The Devil has many allies, not only in the form of spirit beings, but also in
the form of ordinary human beings who agree with his ways unaware.

"The Lord's servant must not strive; but be gentle unto all men, apt to
teach, patient: in meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God
peradventure will give them repentance to the acknowledging of the truth;
and that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are
taken captive by him at his will." (2Tim 2:24-26)

"As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you
used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the
kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are
disobedient." (Eph 2:1-2)

Among the disobedient are Christian teachers, preachers, and ordained
ministers (2Cor 11:14-5). It's fairly easy to avoid being hoodwinked by
cults; but not so easy to avoid being misled by bona fide Christian churches
and whatnot who are covertly working for the Devil. According to Eph 4:14,
they can be very convincing.

The point is: since we can't fight the Devil's kingdom on its own terms, then
the best defense is submission to Christ's commandments which, if complied
with, will go a long ways towards frustrating our adversary's attempts to
degrade the quality and/or effectiveness of our spiritual condition.
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Jas 4:8-10 . . Draw close to God, and God will draw close to you. Wash
your hands, you sinners; purify your hearts, you hypocrites. Let there be
tears for the wrong things you have done.

. . . Let there be sorrow and deep grief. Let there be sadness instead of
laughter, and gloom instead of joy. When you bow down before The Lord
and admit your dependence on Him; then His opinion of you will be
greatly improved.

This seems to be targeting pretense, i.e. passing one's self off as a Christian
while having little to no concern about putting Christianity's principles into
practice. In other words: not just regular sinners, rather, career sinners;
Christians for whom non compliance with Christ's expectations is a way of
life.
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Jas 4:11a . . Do not speak evil of one another, brethren.

The Greek word for "speak evil" is katalaleo (kat-al-al-eh'-o) which means:
a traducer, a slanderer.

Webster's defines "slander" as: the utterance of false charges or
misrepresentations which defame and/or damage another's reputation
and/or a false and defamatory oral statement about a person; viz: libel.

Webster's defines "libel" as: 1) a written or oral defamatory statement or
representation that conveys an unjustly unfavorable impression, and 2) a
statement or representation published without just cause and tending to
expose another to public contempt.

According to Webster's, a statement (or a photograph) need not be untrue
to qualify as libel. If the statement, and/or the photograph, is unnecessarily
denigrating and/or embarrassing to someone, though it be 100% true, then
it qualifies as libel.

There are some things we could say about others that, though true, aren't
necessary. For example, if you were to inadvertently see one of the ladies in
the office scratching an itch on her derriere; is it really necessary to go
blabbing about it all over the office? (cf. Gen 9:20-22)

No; and in point of fact, to do so would be libelous, not to mention possibly
in violation of local labor laws banning the fomentation of a hostile
workplace; and these days, it could even be construed as sexual misconduct.
If that lady ever found out you were blabbing about her derriere she might
be so mortified as to make it difficult for her to show up for work.

Words are weapons,
Sharper than knives.
The Devil Inside, INXS, Andrew Farriss and Michael Hutchence
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Jas 4:11b-12 . . He who speaks evil of a brother and judges his brother,
speaks evil of the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are
not a doer of the law but a judge. There is one Lawgiver, who is able to save
and to destroy. Who are you to judge another?

Someone is sure to jump to the conclusion that James is referring to Matt
7:1-5 but this has nothing to do with that. What we’re talking about here is
a kangaroo court which Webster’s defines as: (1) a mock court in which the
principles of law and justice are disregarded or perverted, (2) a court
characterized by irresponsible, unauthorized, or irregular status or
procedures, and (3) judgment or punishment given outside of legal
procedure.

One way to speak evil of the law, and judge the law, is to misrepresent the
law by construing it to mean things it doesn't say in writing; in other words:
to overrule it and/or criticize the law as out of date.

When a group of beer buddies, and/or a coffee clutch of girl friends, get
together and rake somebody over the coals behind their back, those buddies
and girl friends are conducting a kangaroo court in which the evidence
presented is typically hear-say, feelings, thoughts, and impressions. I
believe the common colloquialism for that activity is "character
assassination."

Typically the accused is never informed of the trial, nor given an opportunity
to confront their accusers, nor are they granted the right to an appeal.
Sadly, yet all to commonly, once kangaroo courts reach a consensus, the
condemned person’s reputation among those kinds of “judges” is ruined
with little chance of repair.

My good opinion, once lost;
Is lost forever.
Mr. Darcy, Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austin
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Jas 4:13-16 . . Come now, you who say: Today or tomorrow, we shall go to
such and such a city, and spend a year there and engage in business and
make a profit.

. . .Yet you do not know what your life will be like tomorrow. You are just a
vapor that appears for a little while and then vanishes away. Instead, you
ought to say: If The Lord wills, we shall live and also do this or that. But as
it is, you boast in your self confidence; all such boasting is evil.

There are two benefits to my association with God that I value very highly.
One is the ransom that His son paid to rescue my soul from the death
depicted at Rev 20;11-15; viz: the destination spoken of at Isa 66:23-24,
Mark 9:43-48, and Luke 16:19-31.

The second benefit that I value very highly is providence; which is the thing
that James is getting at. His criticism is directed towards overly ambitious
Christians who deliberately neglect to take into consideration God's thoughts
about their schemes.

They also neglect to take into consideration the brevity of life. In other
words: if you're getting by alright in your present circumstances, don't seek
better circumstances. Instead, live out the remaining days of your fragile life
where you are now unless circumstances beyond your control force you to
relocate and make some changes.

"Piety, with contentment, is great gain. For we brought nothing into the
world, and we can take nothing out of it. But if we have food and clothing,
we will be content with that. People who want to get rich fall into temptation
and a trap and into many foolish and harmful desires that plunge men into
ruin and destruction. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil.
Some people, eager for money, have wandered from the faith and pierced
themselves with much grief." (1Tim 6:6-10)
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Jas 5:1-3 . . Come now, you rich, weep and wail over your impending
miseries. Your wealth has rotted away, your clothes have become moth
eaten, your gold and silver have corroded, and that corrosion will be a
testimony against you; it will devour your flesh like a fire. You have stored
up treasure for the last days.

Gold doesn't react with oxygen so it won't rust. However, gold isn't
indestructible. Under certain conditions gold will tarnish, e.g. long-term
storage in boxes, bins, and or environments containing organic sulfur
compounds. In other words; James condemns the rich for stockpiling their
gold and never putting any of it to a use beneficial to their fellow man.

The worst case scenario is the hoarding of gold that rightfully belonged to
laborers who worked to earn it.

"Behold, the pay of the laborers who mowed your fields, and which has been
withheld by you, cries out against you; and the outcry of those who did the
harvesting has reached the ears of The Lord of Sabaoth." (Jas 5:4)

James' final comment actually accuses unfair labor practices of murder
because they deprive the working man of a living wage; and of course most
of the world's working men do not challenge unfair labor practices in court
because they simply cannot afford to; and in some countries, they would risk
severe political reprisals if they dared.

"You have condemned and put to death the righteous man; he does not
resist you." (Jas 5:6)

The "righteous man" in this context refers to people putting in an honest
day's work and not being fairly compensated for it and/or employers
contriving tricky ways to short-change them by deducting trumped up
expenses from their pay. There's a lot of that goes on in the garment
industry.

It's still true even in our day that only the rich and powerful can afford
justice. However; there's a day coming when that imbalance will all come to
an end.

"He will defend the afflicted among the people and save the children of the
needy; he will crush the oppressor." (Ps 72:4)

"But with righteousness He will judge the poor, and decide with fairness for
the afflicted of the earth;" (Isa 11:4)
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Jas 5:7-8 . . Persevere, therefore, brethren, until the coming of The Lord.
Behold, the farmer waits for the precious produce of the soil, being patient
about it, until it gets the early and late rains. You too be patient; be strong,
for the coming of The Lord is at hand.

The Greek word translated "at hand" is eggizo (eng-id'-zo) which means: to
make near; viz: approach

So then, "at hand" doesn’t necessarily mean The Lord is poised to drop in
any second now, but rather, his arrival is approaching and getting nearer by
the minute.

Although James' encouragement no doubt applies to all believers, it
especially applies to his Jewish countrymen. They have been waiting, and
waiting, and waiting for God to fulfill the promises He made to Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob; and to restore David's kingdom per the words of the
prophets. I'm told that many have given up hope of the promises and the
predictions ever coming to pass. But James says don't give up; God is
reliable; and He and the kingdom are both worth waiting for no matter how
long it takes.

The problem is: according to 2Pet 3:9, The Lord is actually reluctant to
return; primarily because of the amount of suffering and loss of life that will
occur when He does.

Take for example Rev 16:18-19 where there's predicted a world-wide
earthquake preceding Christ's return so severe on the Richter scale that
cities all over the world will collapse at once.

Something like 2,829 lost their lives when the World Trade Center was
demolished by a terrorist attack in 2001. Well that was only a few acres of
New York City. Just imagine the body count when all of Manhattan comes
down at once. along with other major cities like Los Angeles, San Francisco,
Mexico City, Paris, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, et al. The carnage will be beyond
belief. Surely nobody in a right mind is anxious to see all of that start to
happen. (cf. Isa 2:1-4:6 and Jer 31:1-7)
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Jas 5:9 . . Do not complain against one another, brethren, that you
yourselves may not be judged; behold, the Judge is standing right at the
door.

* I can't help but wonder if maybe James patterned his figurative language
after Gen 4:7 where God said to Cain:

"If you do what is right, will you not be accepted? But if you do not do what
is right, sin is crouching at your door; it desires to have you, but you must
master it."

Anyway: If there’s a personality clash between you and a fellow believer;
God forbid you should drag other people into the middle of it! And keep in
mind that God is an eavesdropper. He hears and sees everything we do,
think, or say. Don't let Him catch you maliciously shredding a fellow
believer's reputation, assassinating their character and/or running them into
the ground behind their back. (cf. Matt 18:15)
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Jas 5:10 . . For an example of suffering and patience, brethren; take the
prophets who spoke in The Lord's name.

The days of Israel, wherein many of the prophets resided, were not ideal,
Much of the time, their country was largely dystopian.

There's an era looming on the horizon wherein the world will be governed by
a man of honor; and justice and stability will be the rule rather than the
exception. But for now, we here in America, and many folks abroad, are
stuck in a world where commerce and government are in the hands of men
and women gone mad with evil. The year 2020 was especially discouraging
in America when a man was elevated the office of President by illegal means
and unscrupulous methods.

In times like these, it's helpful to keep in mind that God has not been
overthrown, nor has He abdicated. The Lord is still on God's throne; and His
plan, purpose, and program for us has neither been altered nor thwarted. It
will go forward even when all 'round us are fear, anxiety, pessimism,
despair, and insecurity.
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Jas 5:12 . . Above all, my brethren, do not swear, either by heaven or by
earth or with any other oath; but let your yes be yes, and your no be no; so
that you may not fall under judgment.

Christ took an oath. (Matt 26:62-64, Mark 14:61-62)

God takes oaths. (Gen 22:15-18, Heb 6:13-18, Heb 7:20-21)

Angels swear (Rev 10:5-6)

Paul swore. (Rom 1:9)

Israel's covenanted law, which Christ came to defend (Matt 5:17-19)
requires oaths on special occasions. (e.g. Ex 22:10-11, Lev 5:1, Num 5:19,
Deut 29:10-15)

So then, not all oaths are wrong.

The problem is, people are too careless with their oaths. They’re wont to say
“I swear to God” and/or "Hand to God" for just about everything. And they
make promises sealed with the same words.

Those promises are a snare because like Jesus said “you cannot make one
hair white or black”. Sure enough, when you seal a promise by God's name,
the forces of heaven and hell, the stars in their courses, dumb luck, brute
force, circumstances beyond your control, and the neighbor's dog are going
to make it impossible for you to keep that promise.

Will God grant you an excuse? Probably not because In order to grant you
an excuse, He would have to compromise not only His integrity; but also the
dignity of the name by which you swore; and that He will never do.

So, it's okay to give your word on a matter, but if at all possible; avoid
attaching God's name into it.

"You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not
hold anyone guiltless who misuses His name." (Ex 20:7)
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Jas 5:13a . . Is anyone among you undergoing hardship? Let him pray.

Though Jesus' followers weren't experiencing difficulty while he was getting
ready for his destiny on the cross (Luke 22:39-46) he no doubt knew that
they were soon to undergo a stress test that would cause them to do
something really stupid if they failed to seek God's providence in what lay
ahead. (e.g. Mark 14:50-52 & 66-72)

Most any kind of "hardship" can cause us to become irrational, lose our
composure, and do something contrary to our better judgment, e.g. layoff,
illness, death in the family, old age, betrayal, divorce, legal problems,
student debt, traffic incidents, crime, political events; etc.

FAQ: Why pray about our difficulties? In hopes that God will make them go
away?

REPLY: Well; if God is any kind of a friend at all; He will no doubt want to
be a part of your life rather than an audience or a bystander. Just having
someone you can talk to, or a shoulder to cry on, is very helpful.
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Jas 5:13b . . Is anyone cheerful? Let him sing praises.

The Greek word translated "sing praises" is psallo which corresponds to the
Hebrew word zamar (e.g. Ps 18:49) Both mean pretty much the same thing,
to wit: vocals accompanied by instrumental music for the purpose of
celebration.

Unfortunately quite a few traditional Christian hymns are dreary: suitable for
a funeral rather than throwing a party. Compare the 150th Psalm wherein
song and dance are accompanied by high-voltage music.

* The apostles sang a hymn during Jesus' last supper; with him, I expect,
serving as choir director. (Matt 26:30) Their song was likely familiar to the
Jews, and probably even utilized in the synagogues. We today study many of
the Jews' ancient songs as scripture, without realizing they were set to
music: some of the prophets too, e.g. Hab 3:19.
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Jas 5:14 . . Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the
church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of
The Lord

Religious fanatics here and there are allowing their underage children to
suffer and even die from treatable medical conditions on the basis of that
verse. Christ addressed this issue indirectly by means of his teachings at
Mark 2:27 which say:

"And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall
have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay
hold on it, and lift it out? How much then is a man better than a sheep?
Wherefore it is lawful to do good on the sabbath days." (Matt 12:11-12)

The sanctity of human life trumps the sanctity of the Sabbath. So then,
hospitals, doctors, nurses, firemen, law enforcement, soup kitchens, rescue
missions, Red Cross, disaster emergency workers, etc. who are busy on the
Sabbath do not sin. Do they break the Sabbath? Yes; but the sanctity of the
seventh day is secondary to the sanctity of human life.

So then, I would have to say, in accordance with Matt 12:11-12, that people
who deny their children adequate medical care in the name of religion regard
the value of their own flesh and blood as something less than that of a
beast.

It's okay to have elders pray for your child, and it's okay to anoint them with
oil. But after that, parents really should take their children to a doctor
because medicine today is far and away superior to the practices available to
Christians back in James' day when oil and prayer were just about the best
there was.

There used to be an old saying going around in Christian circles that went
something like this: When a farmer prays for a crop, he should say amen
with a hoe. In other words, don't just sit back and wait for a miracle when
it's in your power to take some action; and if you don't, then in my opinion,
you deserve to be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law when a child in
your care dies from a treatable condition.

"If any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he
has denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel." (1Tim 5:8)
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Jas 5:16a . . Confess your sins to one another

Words for "your sins" aren't in the Greek manuscript; viz: they're editorial
insertions. Some pencil in the word "faults" which is no less arbitrary.

So we can safely omit "your sins" and clean up that verse to read "Confess
to one another".

The Greek word translated "confess" means things like consent, assent,
acknowledge, agree, and/or concur. It can also mean to "own-up" (a.k.a.
man-up) for example:

When folks are deathly ill-- for instance dying from terminal cancer --then is
a good time to make amends with those whom we've hurt or done wrong in
some way or another. We sure don't want to leave this life while at the same
time leaving a bad taste in people's mouth. And besides, folks need to know
of our regretting the way we treated them.
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Jas 5:19-20 . . My brethren, if any among you strays from the truth, and
one turns him back, let him know that he who turns a sinner from the error
of his way will save his soul from death, and will cover a multitude of sins.

Not all sins are worthy of death (1John 5:16-17). And a sin that's fatal for
one believer may not be lethal for another. I mean, look at David; he
committed the awful sins of premeditated murder and adultery, yet God
allowed him to live (2Sam 11:1-2Sam 12:14). But when Ananias and his
wife Sapphira lied about the proceeds from the sale of their property, they
were summarily executed. (Acts 5:1-10). And in Corinth, the health of only
some was struck after desecrating The Lord's supper; while others were
executed for the same reason (1Cor 11:17-30).

Some kids are easily corrected simply by a cross glare and a stern scolding;
while other kids require a stronger hand.

I once heard a cute story of a man who would whack his mule upside the
head with a wooden stake prior to getting up on the seat of his buckboard.
Someone asked him why he hit the animal. The man replied: That was to
get his attention, otherwise he won't budge when I snap the reins and yell
giddy-up.

"I wish to instruct you, and teach you in the way you should go; I will
counsel you and watch over you. Don't be like the horse or the mule, which
have no discernment, but must be controlled by bit and bridle or they will
not obey you." (Ps 32:8-9)

For some believers, a whack up alongside the head is all it takes to motivate
them to straighten up and fly right. Others are so incorrigible that only a
brush with death finally convinces them that God is serious.
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1Pet 1:13-18 . . Gird up your minds for action, keep sober in spirit, fix your
hope completely on the grace to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus
Christ.

The Greek word translated "hope" means anticipation; which is quite a bit
different than crossing one's fingers; viz; praying for the best while in the
back of one's mind dreading the worst.

The grace to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ is of course
a glorious, superhuman, immortal body. That's good to know for those of us
undergoing the damage being done to our appearance, and the loss of our
vitality, due to the aging process. I can only imagine the despair that
unbelievers must feel knowing that they will never be young ever again.
Once the youth they have now fades away; it's gone, never to be restored
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1Pet 1:14-16. . As obedient children, do not be conformed to the former
lusts which were yours in your ignorance, but like the Holy One who called
you, be holy yourselves also in all your behavior; because it is written: You
shall be holy, for I am holy.

"conformed" is speaking of habits. Take for example alcoholism. The popular
diagnosis these days is that it's a disease. Well; it if is, then it's the only
disease I know of practiced by fools.

"Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging: and whosoever is deceived
thereby is not wise." (Prov 20:1)

Alcoholism isn't a disease; it's a habit, and one of the habits that Christ's
believing followers are commanded to make a habit of avoiding. (Eph 5:18)

"You shall be holy, for I am holy" speaks of the old proverb: Birds of a
feather, flock together. So if people wish to cultivate a rapport with God;
they have to work on becoming heavenly rather than earthly because He
tends to avoid mingling with invasive species; so to speak.
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1Pet 1:22b . . See that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently

A pure heart is one that's honest and sincere rather than pretentious,
deceitful, and/or dissembling.

The Greek word translated "love" in that passage is agapao (ag-ap-ah'-o)
which is actually a very easy love to practice because it doesn't consist of
sentiments like affection and fondness; which are components of the other
love in the New Testament translated from the Greek word phileo (fil-eh'-o).

Agapao is impersonal; commonly expressed in things like charity, kindness,
sympathy, lenience, and tolerance; viz: agapao isn't expressed by liking
people; rather, it's expressed by being nice to people, i.e. civil; defined by
Webster's as adequate in courtesy and politeness: mannerly.

Phileo, on the other hand, is personal and not as common as agapao
because phileo is felt rather than expressed; viz: phileo refers to emotional
attachments.

An excellent contrast between the two loves is seen by comparing John 3:16
and John 16:27.

In the first; God is shown sympathetic.

"For God so loved the world that He gave His one and only son, that
whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life."

In the latter, God is shown affectionate.

"The Father himself loves you because you have loved me and have believed
that I came from God."

Obtaining God's sympathy is very easy because that's on Him; whereas
winning His affections is not so easy because that's on us.

"If you obey my commands, you will abide in my love, just as I have obeyed
my Father's commands and abide in His love. (John 15:10)

Anyway; 1Pet 1:22b only requires Christians to be civil, which I'm convinced
is within everyone's capabilities; even for Christians whose sensitivities are
those of a catcher's mitt or a wooden nickel.

A pure fervent heart refers to taking Peter's requirement seriously enough to
make a determined, conscientious effort to comply with it; viz: every
Christian, even the bi-polar ones, really ought to be doing their level best to
be good people not just some of the time, nor even most of the time; but all
the time-- at the very least among themselves and with each other.
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Webers.Home

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May 28, 2018
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1Pet 2:2:1a . . Lay aside all malice

The Greek word for "malice" is kakia (kak-ee'-ah) which basically refers to
badness, i.e. depravity, malignity, and trouble.

Malignity commonly describes aggressive cancers, which tend to spread and
produce death or deterioration, viz: malignant people are passionately and
relentlessly malevolent; defined by Webster's as having, showing, or arising
from intense often vicious ill will, spite, or hatred.

Seeing as how malice is controllable; then I think it safe to conclude that
there are some people whose mean-spirited behavior is by choice, i.e.
deliberate.
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