Genesis one

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Apr 8, 2022
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#41
Isaiah 55:11
New International Version
so is my word that goes out from my mouth: It will not return to me empty, but will accomplish what I desire and achieve the purpose for which I sent it.

New Living Translation
It is the same with my word. I send it out, and it always produces fruit. It will accomplish all I want it to, and it will prosper everywhere I send it.

English Standard Version
so shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it.

Berean Study Bible
so My word that proceeds from My mouth will not return to Me empty, but it will accomplish what I please, and it will prosper where I send it.

King James Bible
So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it.

You read these verses in the different translations show me where one of them says In the begging God created the heavens and the earth. Period end of subject. The word says His word goes forth out of His mouth and does not return to Him void but accomplishes that which He pleases; and it does not please Him to make something void and empty.

Job 38:7 When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?
God askes Job tell me if you are so smart just where you when ALL the sons of God shouted for Joy? All the sons of God that would include Satan. So I will ask you JBL just when could that have happened?
I want to go to Job 40:15
Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox.
16Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly.
17He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together.
18His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron.
19He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him.
20Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play.
21He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens.
22The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about.
23Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth.
24He taketh it with his eyes: his nose pierceth through snares.
Was this behemoth created on the 6th day of creation ?
 

JLG

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Nov 4, 2021
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#42
The Solar System is stable in human terms, and far beyond, given that it is unlikely any of the planets will collide with each other or be ejected from the system in the next few billion years, and that Earth's orbit will be relatively stable.

What keeps our solar system stable?


So what are the results? Most of the calculations agree that eight billion years from now, just before the Sun swallows the inner planets and incinerates the outer ones, all of the planets will still be in orbits very similar to their present ones. In this limited sense, the solar system is stable.


https://www.ias.edu/ideas/2011/tremaine-solar-system

Is the Solar System Stable?
The stability of the solar system is one of the oldest problems in theoretical physics, dating back to Isaac Newton. After Newton discovered his famous laws of motion and gravity, he used these to determine the motion of a single planet around the Sun and showed that the planet followed an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. However, the actual solar system contains eight planets, six of which were known to Newton, and each planet exerts small, periodically varying, gravitational forces on all the others.
The puzzle posed by Newton is whether the net effect of these periodic forces on the planetary orbits averages to zero over long times, so that the planets continue to follow orbits similar to the ones they have today, or whether these small mutual interactions gradually degrade the regular arrangement of the orbits in the solar system, leading eventually to a collision between two planets, the ejection of a planet to interstellar space, or perhaps the incineration of a planet by the Sun. The interplanetary gravitational interactions are very small—the force on Earth from Jupiter, the largest planet, is only about ten parts per million of the force from the Sun—but the time available for their effects to accumulate is even longer: over four billion years since the solar system was formed, and almost eight billion years until the death of the Sun.
Newton’s comment on this problem is worth quoting: “the Planets move one and the same way in Orbs concentrick, some inconsiderable Irregularities excepted, which may have arisen from the mutual Actions of Comets and Planets upon one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this System wants a Reformation.” Evidently Newton believed that the solar system was unstable, and that occasional divine intervention was required to restore the well-spaced, nearly circular planetary orbits that we observe today. According to the historian Michael Hoskin, in Newton’s world view “God demonstrated his continuing concern for his clockwork universe by entering into what we might describe as a permanent servicing contract” for the solar system.
Other mathematicians have also been seduced into philosophical speculation by the problem of the stability of the solar system. Quoting Hoskin again, Newton’s contemporary and rival Gottfried Leibniz “sneer[ed] at Newton’s conception, as being that of a God so incompetent as to be reduced to miracles in order to rescue his machinery from collapse.” A century later, the mathematician Pierre Simon Laplace was inspired by the success of celestial mechanics to make the famous comment that now encapsulates the concept of causal or Laplacian determinism: “An intelligence knowing all the forces acting in nature at a given instant, as well as the momentary positions of all things in the universe, would be able to comprehend in one single formula the motions of the largest bodies as well as the lightest atoms in the world, provided that its intellect were sufficiently powerful to subject all data to analysis; to it nothing would be uncertain, the future as well as the past would be present to its eyes. The perfection that the human mind has been able to give to astronomy affords but a feeble outline of such an intelligence.”
Many illustrious mathematicians and physicists have worked on this problem in the three centuries since Newton, including Vladimir Arnold, Boris Delaunay, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Andrei Kolmogorov, Joseph Lagrange, Laplace, Jürgen Moser, Henri Poincaré, Siméon Poisson, and others. Several “proofs” of stability have been announced in the course of these labors; these have all been based on approximations that are not completely accurate for our own solar system and thus do not prove its stability. Nevertheless, research on this problem has led to many new mathematical tools and insights (perturbation theory, the KAM theorem,etc.) and inspired the modern disciplines of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory.
The long-term behavior of the solar system is also relevant to a variety of other issues. Particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider must guide protons for over a hundred million orbits, a problem similar in several respects to maintaining the planets on stable orbits for the lifetime of the solar system. The delivery of meteorites to Earth from their birthplace in the asteroid belt is driven by the long-term evolution of asteroid orbits due to forces from Jupiter and other planets. The primary mechanism that drives climate change and ice ages on timescales of tens of thousands of years is the periodic variation in the Earth’s orbit due to forces from the other planets. The discovery of hundreds of extrasolar planetary systems in the last two decades raises the tantalizing possibility that some or all of their properties are determined by the requirement that these systems have been stable for billions of years. In a different arena, some astronomers argue that Robert Frost’s famous poem “Fire and Ice” was inspired by the possible fates of the Earth at the demise of the solar system.
The most straightforward way to solve the problem of the stability of the solar system is to follow the planetary orbits for a few billion years on a computer. All of the planetary masses and their present orbits are known very accurately and the forces from other bodies—passing stars, the Galactic tidal field, comets, asteroids, planetary satellites, etc.—are either easy to incorporate or extremely small. There are two main challenges. The first is to devise numerical methods that can follow the motions of the planets with sufficient accuracy over a few billion orbits; this was solved by the development in the 1990s of symplectic integration algorithms, which preserve the geometrical structure of dynamical flows in multidimensional phase space and thereby provide much better long-term performance than general-purpose integrators.The second challenge was the overall processing time needed to follow planetary orbits for billions of years; this was solved by the exponential growth in speed of computing hardware that has persisted for the last five decades. At the present time, following planetary systems over billion-year intervals is difficult mostly because it is a serial problem—you have to follow the orbits from 2011 to 2020 before you can follow them from 2021 to 2030—whereas most of the computational speed gains of the last few years have been achieved by parallelization, the distributing of a computing problem among hundreds or thousands of processors that work simultaneously.
 

JLG

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Nov 4, 2021
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#43
So what are the results? Most of the calculations agree that eight billion years from now, just before the Sun swallows the inner planets and incinerates the outer ones, all of the planets will still be in orbits very similar to their present ones. In this limited sense, the solar system is stable. However, a closer look at the orbit histories reveals that the story is more nuanced. After a few tens of millions of years, calculations using slightly different parameters (e.g., different planetary masses or initial positions within the small ranges allowed by current observations) or different numerical algorithms begin to diverge at an alarming rate. More precisely, the growth of small differences changes from linear to exponential: at early times, the differences in position at successive time intervals grow as 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, etc., while at later times they grow as 1 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm, 8mm, 16 mm, etc. This behavior is the signature of mathematical chaos, and implies that for practical purposes the positions of the planets are unpredictable further than about a hundred million years in the future because of their extreme sensitivity to initial conditions. As an example, shifting your pencil from one side of your desk to the other today could change the gravitational forces on Jupiter enough to shift its position from one side of the Sun to the other a billion years from now. The unpredictability of the solar system over very long times is of course ironic since this was the prototypical system that inspired Laplacian determinism.
Fortunately, most of this unpredictability is in the orbital phases of the planets, not the shapes and sizes of their orbits, so the chaotic nature of the solar system does not normally lead to collisions between planets. However, the presence of chaos implies that we can only study the long-term fate of the solar system in a statistical sense, by launching in our computers an armada of solar systems with slightly different parameters at the present time—typically, each planet is shifted by a random amount of about a millimeter—and following their evolution. When this is done, it turns out that in about 1 percent of these systems, Mercury’s orbit becomes sufficiently eccentric so that it collides with Venus before the death of the Sun. Thus, the answer to the question of the stability of the solar system—more precisely, will all the planets survive until the death of the Sun—is neither “yes” nor “no” but “yes, with 99 percent probability.”
There remain two intriguing facts that lead to a plausible speculation. First, the future time required for the loss of Mercury is rather similar, within a factor of five or so, to the past time at which the solar system was born. Second, the solar system is nearly “full,” in the sense that there are few places where we could insert an additional planet without causing immediate instability. Both of these facts are explained naturally if the solar system began with more planets, in a configuration that was unstable on timescales much smaller than its current age. As time passed, the system lost more and more planets and thereby gradually self-organized into a more and more stable state. In this process, the time required to lose the next planet would quite naturally be a few times the current age. There would be few fossil traces of these lost siblings of the Earth.

Scott Tremaine first came to the Institute for Advanced Study as a Member in 1978 and has been the Richard Black Professor in the School of Natural Sciences since 2007. He has made seminal contributions to understanding the formation and evolution of planetary systems, comets, black holes, star clusters, galaxies, and galaxy systems.

Published in The Institute Letter Summer 2011
 

JLG

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Nov 4, 2021
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#44
https://www.amnh.org/explore/ology/astronomy/the-milky-way-galaxy2



Did you know that our star, the Sun, is just one of hundreds of billions of stars swirling within an enormous cosmic place called the Milky Way Galaxy? The Milky Way is a huge collection of stars, dust and gas. It’s called a spiral galaxy because if you could view it from the top or bottom, it would look like a spinning pinwheel. The Sun is located on one of the spiral arms, about 25,000 light-years away from the center of the galaxy. Even if you could travel at the speed of light (300,000 kilometers, or 186,000 miles, per second), it would take you about 25,000 years to reach the middle of the Milky Way.

If you could see our galaxy from the side, it would look like a huge, thin disk with a slight bump in the center. This flat shape is caused by the galaxy spinning around. Everything in our spinning galaxy would fly off into space if it weren’t for the force of gravity.

Without a telescope , we can see about 6,000 stars from Earth. That may seem like a lot of stars, but it’s actually only a small part of the whole. If you think of the entire galaxy as a giant pizza, all the stars you can see from Earth fall within about one pepperoni on that pizza. In fact, for every star you can see, there are more than 20 million you cannot see. Most of the stars are too faint, too far away or blocked by clouds of cosmic dust.



Are all galaxies like the Milky Way?
No. Galaxies come in lots of different sizes. Smaller ones have millions of stars, while bigger ones contain billions. Galaxies also have different shapes. Some are spiral galaxies, like the Milky Way. Some are egg-shaped elliptical galaxies, and the rest are called irregular galaxies.
 

JLG

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#45
New research has revealed that for from being flat and stable, our galaxy is buckling away into space father from the centre.

The Milky Way isn't a stable disk of stars, new research has discovered, but in fact is warped and twisted the further away from the centre you look.

Scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences' national astronomical observatories (NAOC) have discovered the unusual shape and published their findings in the journal Nature Astronomy.



From a distance, the Milky Way does indeed look like a thin disk of stars which orbit a mysterious centre every few hundred million years.

At the centre of our galaxy is a supermassive black hole, but also hundreds of billions of stars and a huge mass of dark matter, which hold everything together with gravity.

But farther away from this inner core, the hydrogen atoms which make up most of the gas disk are no longer tightly bound to the thin plane and buckle above and below it.

This S-like warped appearance is revelatory for scientists who are trying to accurately image the Milky Way.







"It is notoriously difficult to determine distances from the Sun to parts of the Milky Way's outer gas disk without having a clear idea of what that disk actually looks like," said Dr Chen Xiaodian.
 

JLG

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#46
The large spiral galaxy next door

Although several dozen minor galaxies lie closer to our Milky Way, the Andromeda galaxy is the closest large spiral galaxy to ours. Excluding the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, visible from Earth’s Southern Hemisphere, the Andromeda galaxy is the brightest external galaxy you can see. At 2.5 million light-years, it’s the most distant thing most of us humans can see with the unaided eye.

Note: The large spiral Triangulum galaxy is slightly more distant at 2.7 million light-years. Like the Andromeda galaxy, it’s a member of our Local Group of galaxies. And it’s sometimes said to be visible to the eye also. But it’s turned face-on to us, and so has a low surface brightness. Unlike the Andromeda galaxy, it’s very hard to see.


Astronomers sometimes call the Andromeda galaxy by the name Messier 31, or M31. It was the 31st on a famous list of fuzzy objects compiled by the French astronomer Charles Messier (1730-1817). His catalog listed “objects to avoid” when comet-hunting. Nowadays, amateur astronomers seek out these objects with their telescopes and binoculars. They’re some of most beautiful deep-sky objects known.
 

JLG

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#47
Andromeda and Milky way galaxies are merging.

Milky Way and Andromeda merger has begun

The Andromeda galaxy, the nearest spiral galaxy to our Milky Way, isn’t noticeable in our night sky, unless you look for it. Under dark skies, however, you can see it without optical aid, but only as a barely visible fuzzy patch of light. But one day, far in the future, Andromeda will be bright in our sky, growing larger and larger … as it gets closer and closer to us. And even though the two galaxies are still 2.5 million light-years apart, the eventual merger of our two galaxies has, in fact, already begun.

The great extent of galactic halos

The Andromeda galaxy is currently racing toward our Milky Way at a speed of about 70 miles (113 km) per second. With this in mind, our merger will occur five billion years from now. But, in August 2020, the peer-reviewed Astrophysical Journal published new research revealing that the collision between our galaxies is already underway.

The Andromeda galaxy, our Milky Way and other galaxies all sit enshrouded in a large envelope – called a galactic halo – which consists of gas, dust and stray stars. The halos of galaxies are faint, so faint, in fact, that detecting them is not an easy feat. These astronomers measured the size of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy by looking at how much it absorbed light from background quasars. They were surprised to find that the Andromeda galaxy’s halo stretches much, much farther beyond its visible boundaries.

Indeed, it extends as far as half the distance to our Milky Way (1.3 million light-years) and even farther in other directions (up to 2 million light-years).

Are the halos touching yet?

So, does this mean the halos of the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxies are touching?

It turns out that, from our vantage point inside the Milky Way, we cannot easily measure the characteristics of our galaxy’s halo. However, because the two galaxies are so similar in size and appearance, scientists assume that the halo of the Milky Way would also be similar.

In other words, it’s the faint halos of the galaxies that indeed appear to have started to touch one another. Thus, in a manner of speaking, the collision between our two galaxies has already started.
 

JLG

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#48
What happens to stars and planets when galaxies merge?

Across the universe, galaxies are colliding with each other. Astronomers observe galactic collisions – or their aftermaths – with the aid of powerful telescopes. In some ways, when a galactic merger takes place, the two galaxies are like ghosts; they simply pass through each other. That’s because stars inside galaxies are separated by such great distances. Thus the stars themselves typically don’t collide when galaxies merge.

That said, the stars in both the Andromeda galaxy and our Milky Way will be affected by the merger. The Andromeda galaxy contains about a trillion stars. Meanwhile, the Milky Way has about 300 billion stars. Stars from both galaxies will be thrown into new orbits around the newly merged galactic center. For example, according to scientists involved in the 2012 studies:

It is likely the sun will be flung into a new region of our galaxy …

And yet, they said,

… our Earth and solar system are in no danger of being destroyed.

Will humanity see the Andromeda merger?

So, how about life on Earth? Will earthly life survive the merger? Well, the sun will eventually become a red giant in about 7.5 billion years, when it will increase in size and consume the Earth. But even before then, the luminosity, or intrinsic brightness, of the sun will increase. This will happen, ultimately, in a timeline of about four billion years.

As solar radiation reaching the Earth increases, Earth’s surface temperature will increase. We may undergo a runaway greenhouse effect, similar to that going on now on the planet next door, Venus. So there’s a good change that earthly life won’t be around when the merger concludes.

But by that time, maybe some earthly inhabitants will have become space-faring. Perhaps we’ll have left Earth, and even our solar system. We may still get the view of Andromeda crashing into the Milky Way, just from a slightly different perspective.
 

JLG

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#51
Genesis 22

- God wants to test Abraham so he tells him to go to a mountain and offers him his son Isaac in sacrifice!

- We remember that God gives Abraham a son when he is too old to have one!

- So in a way Isaac belongs to him!

- Then he wants him to become a big nation!

- Why giving him a son if he wants to take him afterward?

- God has blessed him!

- Of course, we are not in Abraham’s head!

- He may have mixed feelings!

- But he knows the relationship he has to God!

- That makes the difference!