In verse 17, what are the two contrasting words "shadow" and "body" referring to, and does the New Testament utilize this same word elsewhere, and if so, in what way? Additionally, were they of things past [iow, a memorial, a remembrance], or of future things, "...of things to come."?
God's Ten Commandments are not "shadow", they are "Light":
Proverbs 6:23 KJB For the commandment [is] a lamp; and the law [is] light; and reproofs of instruction [are] the way of life:
Isaiah 8:20 KJB To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, [it is] because [there is] no light in them.
Isaiah 51:4 KJB Hearken unto me, my people; and give ear unto me, O my nation: for a law shall proceed from me, and I will make my judgment to rest for a light of the people.
The Fourth Commandment itself, even points to the past of a world without sin, and in the Saviour who is without sin, as a memorial [Remember, what the LORD did in the 7th Day], in both Creation and in the Salvation of Jesus Christ, and it will also be so in the New Heaven and New Earth, as the forever memorial of Christ's redemption completed, for He will have saved His people from their sin/s:
Exodus 20:8 KJB Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
Exodus 20:9 KJB Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:
Exodus 20:10 KJB - But the seventh day [is] the sabbath of the LORD thy God: [in it] thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that [is] within thy gates:
Exodus 20:11 KJB - For [in] six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them [is], and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
Yet, we can know that the Passover, and its sacrifices, etc, was the shadow pointing forward to the True:
1 Corinthians 5:7 KJB “... even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us ...”
John the Baptist understood the type/reality, that Jesus [The Light of the World, the Sun of Righteousness] was the Anti-typical [fulfillment/reality, that which is the substance, casting the shadow, not the shadow itself]:
John 1:29 KJB “... Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God ..."
John 1:36 KJB “And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God ...”
Thus, what we have in Colossians 2:16, is a list, of  “daily”,  “seasonally” [festally, the specific times in the year, fall, spring],  “monthly” [12 times, average, a year] and  “yearly and of years”, thus an increasing order, and having nothing whatsoever to do with the “weekly” Holy 7th Day Sabbath of the LORD thy God, the Holy Commandment:
2 Peter 2:21 KJB For it had been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, after they have known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them.
(2 Peter 2:21 is very deep.)
There is a deep "woe" upon those who have turned God's Holy, Just and Good 4th commandment into "shadow" or Darkness:
Isa_5:20 Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!
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